ATP Articles Summary

This is a repository of all articles related to ATP and RLT.

Low-Intensity Light Therapy: Exploring the Role of Redox Mechanisms

  • This study intricately examines the mechanisms behind changes, such as heightened ATP production, resulting from redox reactions in mitochondria and their connection to cellular homeostasis through light therapy.
  • Foremost among the reasons why light therapy impacts processes like ATP production is the photoreceptor cytochrome C oxidase (CCO), responsive to low-level red and near-infrared light.
  • Upon photoexcitation of CCO in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, cellular function undergoes alterations, effectively boosting metabolism and generating reactive oxygen species.
  • Furthermore, the initial redox state of cells appears to influence their photosensitivity.
  • The influence of light on redox mechanisms can potentially elucidate why cells in pro-oxidant states, such as chronically inflamed ones, are more susceptible.
  • In such scenarios, these processes could provide the energy and direction to restore redox homeostasis, thereby enhancing cell functioning.

Low-level laser (light) therapy increases mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP synthesis in C2C12 myotubes with a peak response at 3-6 hours

Optimizing Light Therapy for Muscle Performance: ATP Synthesis Insights

  • 850±20 nm and 630±10 nm used in this study
  • Found that peak ATP synthesis occurs 3-6 hours after light is applied to skin (in vitro experiment)
  • Used mouse muscle cells grown in cell culture
  • “The light dose used was based on previous study that already reported benefits of LLLT on mitochondria of myotubes” (This one: )
  • Possibly, the relatively modest increases observed in other studies may stem from insufficient time for muscle cells to convert light therapy into biological responses, as our study identifies for MMP and ATP synthesis. Protocols for muscular pre-conditioning, commonly applying light just 5 minutes before exercise, may not achieve optimal results. Our results suggest waiting 3 to 6 hours after light therapy irradiation to maximize the increase in muscle performance, given the significance of MMP and ATP availability. Once again, we emphasize the necessity for additional in vivo studies and clinical trials to substantiate our hypotheses.
  • How much more ATP did the treated muscle cells produce under light therapy? The study revealed a remarkable increase of 200-350% compared to control studies. The most significant increases were observed at 24 hours, with 3 and 6 hours also proving optimal. In contrast, the 5-minute timeframe did not show a substantial effect, indicating the delayed cellular response to light therapy.

Proposed Mechanisms of Photobiomodulation or Low-Level Light Therapy

Decoding the Intricacies: Unraveling Mechanisms of Light’s Impact on Mitochondrial ATP Production

  • Examining additional mechanisms behind light’s impact on ATP production in mitochondria reveals two key hypotheses. Firstly, light photons may separate nitric oxide from the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme, enhancing electron transport, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ATP production. Secondly, light-sensitive ion channels activated by light exposure enable calcium entry into cells, triggering multiple signaling pathways involving reactive oxygen species, cyclic AMP, NO, and Ca2+. These pathways activate transcription factors, promoting gene expression related to protein synthesis, cell migration, proliferation, anti-inflammatory signaling, anti-apoptotic proteins, and antioxidant enzymes. Empirical evidence highlights the heightened susceptibility of stem cells and progenitor cells to Low-Level Light Therapy (LLLT).

“The frequent and noteworthy outcome of increased intracellular ATP following Photobiomodulation (PBM) is observed both in vitro and in vivo. This heightened ATP synthesis stems from elevated Cox activity triggered by light activation. In their research, Ferraresi et al. elaborate on the mechanism, noting enhanced muscle performance in various exercises with pre-exercise PBM. Specifically, LED therapy at 850±20 nm and 630±10 nm induces increased ATP synthesis in muscles with diverse metabolic profiles, aligning with previous findings by Ferraresi et al.”

  • Quote is based off second study (the one above this one) on this document

Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase is not the primary acceptor for near infrared light-it is mitochondrial bound water: the principles of low-level light therapy.

Reconsidering Mitochondria and Cytochrome C Oxidase: A Novel Viewpoint

  • An intriguing perspective on mitochondria and cytochrome c oxidase challenges the conventional view. According to this article, ‘Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase is not the primary acceptor for near-infrared light; it is mitochondrial-bound water.’ Despite its recent release in 2019, there is a lack of supporting evidence or papers aligning with the ideas presented in this article within the scientific community.

Time Response of Increases in ATP and Muscle Resistance to Fatigue After Low-Level Laser (Light) Therapy (LLLT) in Mice

  • This article delves into the optimal timing of low-level light therapy for maximum muscle resistance and ATP production, highlighting the benefits observed six hours post-treatment. The study, conducted in vivo on mice, presents a more favorable scenario than the previous in vitro study on mouse cells.
  • The suggested application of LEDT six hours before competition, although acknowledging the difference in time response between mice and humans, holds potential for athletes.
  • Utilizing a cluster of LEDs with specific wavelengths, the study applied light therapy to various muscle groups. The 3-hour group of mice demonstrated significant benefits, aligning with findings from another study. The 24-hour group showed a slight improvement, while the 5-minute group exhibited no statistical difference compared to the control group.

Primary and secondary mechanisms of action of visible to near-IR radiation on cells (Karu)

Light Sensitivity of Mitochondrial Biomolecules: In Vitro Insights”

In Vitro Analysis of Increased ATP Production: Examining the Light Sensitivity of Mitochondrial Biomolecules

  • Cited from above study as an example (in fact it appears to be one of the first I could find) of in vitro example of increased ATP production
  • They discovered light sensitivity in various biomolecules within mitochondria, such as cytochrome C oxidase, proteins, nucleic acids, and adenine nucleotides, leading to significant biochemical modifications.
  • The study used either laser or narrow band light (in this case both low power He–Ne laser with k = 632.8 nm, and non-coherent red light LED k = 650 ± 20 nm, were used).
  • There were several tests used to determine how light sensitive these biomolecules were by combining research on this topic from several papers and aggregating/analyzing results. Most results showed positive correlation with light therapy/photobiomodulation including ATP production, # of mitochondria, mitochondria density, muscle regeneration, among other things.
  • This is important because it shows that light therapy can affect mitochondria and its functions


Older articles still related to ATP:

Ga-As (808 Nm) Laser Irradiation Enhances ATP Production in Human Neuronal Cells in Culture

ATP 808nm

Differential Response of Human Dermal Fibroblast Subpopulations to Visible and Near-Infrared Light: Potential of Photobiomodulation for Addressing Cutaneous Conditions

ATP lots of wavelengths

Red (660 Nm) or Near-Infrared (810 Nm) Photobiomodulation Stimulates, While Blue (415 Nm), Green (540 Nm) Light Inhibits Proliferation in Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

ATP superiority of red over blue green 2017

Effect of Near-Infrared Light on in vitro Cellular ATP Production of Osteoblasts and Fibroblasts and on Fracture Healing With Intramedullary Fixation

Summary (new): Notably, ATP production peaks 3-6 hours after exposure to red light, with 660 nm performing better than 830 nm. Experiments often use a combination of two lights. One study links Red Light Therapy benefits, including increased ATP, to redox reactions, providing valuable insights.

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