The Electrain Series-Riboflavin

The third supplement in The Electrain Series is Riboflavin. Do you wonder what makes your urine yellow? It’s riboflavin! It is also known as Vitamin B2. Alexander Wynter Blyth first discovered riboflavin in 1879 in milk. However, it was officially named and extracted in 1922. The same Vitamin B2 was also found in eggs and other meat products until scientists discovered that it was the same vitamin.

Riboflavin is a part of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). These are involved in critical regulatory pathways of mitochondria. Ninety percent of riboflavin is found in the form of FMN and FAD. These molecules are used explicitly in the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain as well. FMN is located in complex I of the electron transport chain (ETC), and FAD is found in complex II of the electron transport chain.


Riboflavin consists of an isoalloxazine ring and a ribityl side chain that is converted to FMN by the addition of a phosphate group to the ribityl side chain. It is then converted to FAD by the addition of adenosine diphosphate (ADP).

isoalloxazine ring

ribityl side chain

phosphate group

FMN is a cofactor for NADH-CoQ, which converts NADH to CoQ. FAD carries an electron and is a cofactor for succinate dehydrogenase, which speeds up the conversion of succinate to fumarate in the citric acid cycle. If this process doesn’t happen then, the ETC will produce superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals which will damage the DNA

Riboflavin is considered a vital component of mitochondrial energy production mediated by the ETC. It is particularly important for the normal production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which leads to membrane stability and sustaining adequate energy-related cellular functions. A decrease in riboflavin could lead to cataracts, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases.,adequate%20energy%2Drelated%20cellular%20functions

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