The first supplement we will be exploring is Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). CoQ10 has many benefits outside of energy production, including anti-aging, cancer prevention, and improved exercise performance. It also plays a significant role in oxidative phosphorylation by accepting electrons from reducing agents. CoQ10 contributes to the transfer of H+ protons, which creates a proton gradient. When the protons flow back to the inside of the mitochondria, energy is released and is used to form adenosine triphosphate(ATP). ATP is the primary carrier of energy in cells and is used to fuel cellular processes. CoQ10 prevents the production of free radicals and reactive oxidative species (ROS). CoQ10 has two forms, ubiquinol, and ubiquinone. Ubiquinol is found in the blood and is the recommended form for supplements. The general dosage of CoQ10 should be about 30-90mg a day.
We will compare the two forms in terms of effectiveness and availability. Ubiquinone is the fully oxidized form of CoQ10 which means that it does not have the H+ ion. Ubiquinol gains an electron which means it has the H+ ion. Ubisemiquinone or semiquinone is a free radical that is an intermediate between ubiquinol and ubiquinone. In terms of color, ubiquinol is milky white, and ubiquinone is yellowish. Ubiquinol is more expensive than ubiquinone and is less chemically stable.
Interestingly, in two studies, Q-SYMBIO and KISEL-10, ubiquinone was more effective than ubiquinol on cardiovascular disease. After receiving supplementation three × 100 mg/day for two years, there was a 42% reduction in cardiac-related deaths compared to the control group. In another study, ubiquinol was a better supplemental form to enhance CoQ10 than ubiquinone in older men. However, both of the supplements have relatively similar efficacies because specific cells can convert ubiquinone to ubiquinol. Some of the studies used a dry powdered crystalline form of ubiquinone which does not absorb as well into the body.