Key terms –
Stanger Bath or Galvanic Bath – these are baths that you lay in and have an electrical current flow over or through you. They have said to help rheumatism, hyperhidrosis, spondylitis and other issues.
Iontophoresis – devices that create an electric current between two points of the device but uses the flesh as the salt bridge to form a continuous circuit.
Salt bridge – the ionic connection in a battery which lets the anode and cathode keep a neutral charge so they can continue to operate
Nanobubbles – gas filled bubbles in a liquid which are nanoscopic in size and have unique properties
Nanobubbles and charged current forced transmission – our electron donation concept of using a magnesium anode against the skin in the presence of oxidative stress or free radicals in the body creates a phenomena similar to iontophoresis. For our anode to work, it also needs to deliver positively charged ions (usually magnesium) into the body to keep the charge neutral similar to what happens in a battery with the salt bridge.
In batteries as outlined in our animations you have an anode, cathode, and a salt bridge. The anode is where the electrons come out of, the cathode is the target destination for the electrons and the salt bridge is the material between the two that does not allow electrons to flow but does allow ions to flow in order to keep the charges neutral which allows the continued flow of electrons.
Nanobubbles are negatively charged, in fact a key point about the stability of nanobubbles is the zetapotential which is the measurement of the charge of the nanobubble. The farther from 0 the zeta potential is the greater the charge but also the more stable they are. The reason for this is that it prevents the bubbles from coalescing which is a death knell for the bubbles. Nanobubbles go into the negative realm of zeta potential so they have a negative charge. Therefore just like a negatively charged ion which can be forced into the body using iontophersis the same is possible with nanobubbles.
Zeta potential is measured in the following way- From Science Direct – Zeta potential is measured by adding a solution to a cell that contains two gold electrodes. When a voltage is applied to the electrode, the particles will move toward the electrode with the opposite charge. A Doppler technique is used to measure the particle velocity as a function of voltage.
Typically nanobubbles enter into the body via osmosis and diffusion because of the higher concentration of gas in the solution versus in the body. We have easily achieve the ability to get around 24ppm of O2 in water at a temperature of around 96F (35.5C), typically in nature the max O2 level in water at this temp is 6.9, figure 7ppm DO. This means we are achieving around 3-4x greater than what is naturally possible. We believe we can achieve even higher amounts of dissolved oxygen by controlling for pH, TDS and salinity, to get around 30-35ppm.
However even at our current 24ppm in 96F water, we have therapeutic effects, immediately clearly demonstrable with blood oxygen sensors giving people who have never had 100 on their blood oxygen content achieving that from the pod, and later in energy and sleep.
That is all great, but by combining our nanobubble methods with that of electron donation or half-cell technology or instead by combining it with a galvanic or stanger bath we can now force the nanobubbles into the body as well.
This means we can penetrate the oxygen or really any gas deeper and get more gas inserted and do it more rapidly. Currently we have people stay in our nanobubble bath for at least 30 minutes though many want to stay in much longer (over an hour) because the experience is so pleasant. However we could create essentially a hyper fast therapy session by the combination of the leveraging the nanobubles zeta potential with that of the galvanic bath.
Though our focus is on human health, the use of leveraging nanobubbles zeta potentials with charged electrical current to drive the bubbles through something, can be extended to many other applications as well, such as any thing where driving the gas bubbles, or gas bubbles with particles inside through a membrane or barrier of some sort is desirable.
To speak more about Zeta potential and its importance in nanobubble formation, stability and ability to increase concentration in a liquid medium. As mentioned before zeta potential is basically the charge of the bubbles (it is more technical than that, but this will suffice). Certain things affect the zeta potential of nanobubbles such as pH, as seen in the graph below, the best pH for zeta potential is at 10, our water is typically around 9.47
Here is another graph showing how the zeta of oxygen nanoubbles based on pH, remember the more negative the number the better.
Then having salts in the water also ruins Zeta potential as seen below, this is why we filter our water ahead of time and measure TDS and conductance.
Here is a chart showing how sodium chloride just trashes zeta potential.
Then temperature has an effect also, but it is not much, and starts to even out. However the negative effect of warmer temp is vastly outweighed by the therapeutic effect of the warmer water which lets the skins pores really open up and receive the oxygen.
Then there is the size of the nanoubble, which also plays a role, there is a size range that is highly desirable for stable nanobubbles, we call this the island of stability to steal the term from the science of theoretical elements.
Here below is the chart which shows this island of stability. This size range is between about 50nm to 200 maybe 250nm.
Smaller than this and the bubbles implode or dissolve, and larger they cant maintain stability and will coalesce or float away. About 90% of our nanobubbles are in this island of stability when we produce them.
If you are wondering why even bother, if you want oxygen therapy do hyperbaric, then my answer is to look at this research paper which shows dissolved oxygen being 5x more effective at penetrating intermediate dermis and gaseous not even able to get deep in the body.
CONCLUSION – We want to create nanobubbles that have optimal pH (near 10, for us in use 9.47), have optimal size between 50-200nm (our most common size bubbles is around that sweet 110 nm size, based on our partners testing). Further we want to not have any salts in the water, even though the skin will release salts on its, own, these can be reduced by showering ahead of time, and the effect will need to be accepted from the skin. Warmer temp has a negative effect but we do not care as it is minimal and the warm water greatly improves user experience and therapeutic potential by opening up the pores.
Then once in the water or the water over a part of the body we use charged electrical current, maybe from electron donation, sacrificial anode tech, or more directly like what a stanger bath or galvanic bath are. With this then we can push the nanobubbles through the skin or as mentioned just use this phenomena to push the nanobubbles through many other membranes or barriers etc.
Pour nanobubble water in a bath, use the current to drive the gas through the skin, then bring in fresh nanobubble water and keep doing this, possibly doing it enough to make the lungs not necessary in such a system.